The Centre for Gastrointestinal (GI) Disorders at VIGOS Hospital offers patients the most advanced surgical care, with an emphasis on the safe and effective treatment of gastrointestinal cancers. We have a staff of highly trained surgeons and specialised nurses that try to provide the highest level of patient care at all times. We are one of the very few centres to offer minimal access surgery.
Types of Laparoscopic GI Cancer
Advantages of Laparoscopic
GI Cancer Treatment
Several advantages are observed with laparoscopic GI cancer surgery, including:
- Because laparoscopic surgery is minimally invasive, it only needs small cuts. This means less pain, fewer scars, and a shorter time to heal.
- Reduced Risk of Complications: Compared to traditional open surgery, laparoscopic surgery carries a reduced risk of problems such as infection, bleeding, and tissue damage.
- Less Scarring: The smaller incisions used in laparoscopic surgery lead to less scarring and a more aesthetically pleasing result.
- Research has indicated that laparoscopic surgery can result in superior patient outcomes, including a lower chance of cancer recurrence and an increased survival rate.
- Less Blood Loss
- Early chemotherapy and radiotherapy
Know More About GI Cancer
The oesophagus is likely to lead to two primary types of cancer.
- Squamous cell carcinoma is more prevalent in the upper and middle esophageal regions.
- Adenocarcinoma occurs in the lower part of the oesophagus.
- Difficulty swallowing as the tumour gets larger and the width of the oesophagus becomes narrowed.
- In addition, it can cause indigestion, heartburn, vomiting, and choking.
- Coughing and voice hoarseness.
- Weight loss is common.
- Physical assessment.
- A barium swallow, also known as an esophagram, is a series of x-rays of the oesophagus.
- X-rays are then taken to detect any changes in the esophagus’s shape.
- UGI-Endoscopy—A thin, flexible, lighted instrument with a camera at the end is passed through the mouth and into the oesophagus. During this procedure, if necessary, biopsies can be taken and sent to the pathologist for examination to detect cancer cells.
- A CT scan of the neck, chest, and abdomen may help us determine if the cancer has spread to other organs.
- Endoscopic ultrasound is a technique that can be used to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the tumor’s depth and lymph node involvement.
- An ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration can be performed.
Depending on the stage of esophageal cancer, the patient may undergo a variety of treatments.
- Radiation and/or chemotherapy may be used to treat cancer.
- Dilatation and tube prosthesis (stent) and
- Radiation or laser treatment to reduce the size of the cancer
- Endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection: some patients with very early-stage esophageal cancer may undergo an endoscopic resection of the cancer without surgery.
Stomach Cancer (Gastric Cancer)
Cancer of the stomach can develop in any part of the stomach and spread to other organs, including the small intestines, lymph nodes, liver, pancreas, and colon.
- Symptoms In the early stages, patients may exhibit no symptoms, and the disease is frequently diagnosed after it has spread. These are the most common symptoms:
- Having abdominal pain or distress
- nausea and vomiting
- loss of hunger
- Weakness or tiredness
- Bleeding (vomiting blood or passing blood in stools) (vomiting blood or passing blood in stools)
- Weight loss
- Early satiety (inability to consume a full meal due to a “full feeling”)
Your doctor may do one or more of the following tests in addition to getting a full medical history and a physical exam:
- Endoscopy with Biopsy
- A CT scan may be used to determine whether the stomach cancer has spread to the liver, pancreas, lungs, or other organs nearby.
- Endoscopic ultrasound can also be used to determine the stage of gastric cancer.
Treatment plans can vary based on the size, location, and size of the tumor, as well as the patient’s overall health.
- Surgery (Gastrectomy, lymph node removal near the tumor)
- Radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy.
Liver Cancer (Hepatocellular Carcinoma)
The liver cancer is known as hepatocellular carcinoma. It is also known as hepatoma or primary liver cancer. HCC is the fifth most prevalent cancer worldwide. The majority of cancers found in the liver have spread to or metastasized from other organs. Colon, pancreatic, lung, and breast cancers are cancers that frequently metastasize to the liver.
- If the tumor is very large or has spread, abdominal pain will be present.
- Unaccountable weight loss
- Undiagnosed fevers
- The sudden appearance of abdominal swelling (ascites) ,
- Jaundice or yellow discoloration of eyes.
- muscle atrophy
- Blood tests: elevated liver function tests, low albumin, elevated AFP, low sodium, and elevated blood urea nitrogen.
- Radiological imaging includes ultrasound, CT scanning (MRI, or magnetic resonance imaging), and angiography.
- An ultrasound of the liver is frequently the initial diagnostic procedure.
- CT scan-
- MRI: It can make pictures of the biliary tree and the liver’s arteries and veins.
- The outcome is highly dependent on the tumor’s stage and the severity of the accompanying liver disease. Some factors are predictive of negative outcomes. These consist of:
- Male gender, older age,
- Alcohol intake
- Symptoms include weight loss and a reduced appetite.
- Symptoms of Ascites
- Jaundice, ascites, or mental confusion resulting from liver disease are indicators of a dysfunctional liver (encephalopathy).
- Tumor staging: tumors that are bigger than 3 centimeters, multiple tumors, tumors that have spread to nearby blood vessels, and tumors that have spread outside of the liver.
- Chemotherapy may involve the intravenous administration of anti-cancer agents or chemoembolization.
- Ablation: Radiofrequency waves, alcohol injected into the tumor, or proton beam radiation to the site of the tumor are all ways to use ablation therapy to destroy tissue. No research shows that one of these treatments is better than the others.
- Surgery :Only patients with excellent liver function and tumors smaller than 3–5 cm and confined to the liver are candidates for surgery.
- Liver Transplantation: Patients with end-stage liver disease or small HCC may be treated with liver transplantation.
Cancer of the pancreas begins in the tissues of the pancreas, an organ in the abdomen located behind the lower stomach.
There are numerous types of pancreatic growths, including cancerous and noncancerous tumors. The most prevalent form of pancreatic cancer begins in the cells that line the ducts (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma).
- Early pancreatic cancer usually doesn’t cause any symptoms, which is why it’s called the “silent” disease. As the tumor grows, the patient may experience some or all of the following:
- Jaundice: If the tumor obstructs the bile ducts (the major bile duct passes through the pancreas), the patient may develop jaundice, a condition in which the skin and eyes turn yellow and the urine turns dark.
- Abdominal pain: As the cancer advances, the patient may experience abdominal pain that may radiate to the back. Pain may intensify when eating or when lying down.
- Reduced appetite
- Weight loss
- Physical examination
- Endoscopic and radiological examinations, including a CT scan, MRI, or ultrasound.
- Endoscopic ultrasound: Under ultrasonic guidance, a pancreatic abnormality may be biopsied by inserting a needle into the pancreas under certain circumstances.
- An ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram), a special x-ray of the pancreatic duct and common bile duct, may also be used to diagnose the condition.
Pancreatic cancer is only curable if detected in its earliest stages. Possible treatment options:
Due to their similarities, cancers of the colon and rectum, which are the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancers, are grouped together as colorectal cancer. Despite being the third-leading cause of cancer-related deaths, the death rate from colorectal cancer continues to decline as a result of improved screening and treatment.
Types of Colorectal Cancer
There are numerous types of colon and rectal cancers, including:
- Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs)
- Carcinoid tumors
Typical symptoms of colorectal cancer include:
- A change in bowel habits (such as diarrhea, constipation, or small stools).
- A persistent urge to defecate that persists after having a bowel movement.
- Rectal bleeding
- Blood in the faeces (bright red or dark)
- abdominal discomfort or cramping
- A bloating or feeling of fullness diagnosis of anemia
- Weakness and exhaustion
- Accidental weight loss
- sickness or vomiting
- Physical examination
- Stool for occult blood and DNA analysis
- CT or MRI scan
- Local excision
- Endoscopic mucosal resection
- Ablation using radiofrequency
- Bypassing colostomy
- Open colectomy
- Endoluminal stents
- Radiation Therapy
- Targeted Therapy